[Yiddish: Tarnov, Tornev, Torne, Tarna] - A town in the Malopolska voivodship. Tarnow was granted its town charter around the year 1330; remaining in private hands until 1787, it was the property of the Tarnowski, Ostrogski and Sanguszko families.

Situated along the route to Rus' and Hungary, Tarnow began developing as a center for the grain and wine trades in the fourteenth century. It also functioned as an economic center for the magnates' holdings. Jewish settlement was noted as early as 1443. The Tarnow Community was probably an affiliate (przykahalek) of the one in Krakow, with which it jointly paid the coronation tax in 1507.

In 1581, Konstanty Ostrogski granted the Jews a privilege that later owners confirmed several times, for example in the years 1637, 1670 and 1684. On the basis of these documents, they could sell all manner of goods from their homes and stalls, as well as at the market. They were also allowed to distill alcohol and have liquor licenses.

The Jewish community in Tarnow grew quickly, as the demands of the clergy to limit the influx of Jews into the city demonstrate. By the early seventeenth century, the gmina already had a cemetery and synagogue. The city was seriously damaged during the wars of the mid-seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, which led to economic stagnation.

After the first partition of Poland, Tarnow was part of the Austrian partition, and in 1787 became part of government land holdings. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, Chasidim and the Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment) had a strong following in Tarnow. In the nineteenth century, the city became one of Galicia's fastest-growing economic centers. In the mid-nineteenth century, it gained rail links to Krakow and Lwow. Factories producing agricultural implements and glass were founded. In 1910, an electrical energy plant was opened.

The population grew rapidly, including the Jewish population. In 1830, there were approximately 1,200 Jews living in Tarnow (34% of the total population); by 1890, this number had grown to 11,400 (46%).

From the late nineteenth century, political groups were active in Tarnow-primarily Zionist organizations that were preparing their members for emigration to Palestine. During the interwar period, Tarnow was still the district (powiat) seat and remained an important economic center. The machine, chemical, food and clothing industries grew. In 1939, the city had a population of 52,000, of which 25,000 were Jews (48% of the total population).
When the Second World War broke out, Germans occupied the city and concentrated the Jewish population in designated parts of the city in March 1941. In February 1942, the Germans created a ghetto in those areas. A total of 40,000 people were moved there, including Jews from nearby towns, as well as Jews from the Czech lands and the Reich. The residents of the ghetto were deported gradually during the summer and autumn of 1942 to the death camp in Belzec. The ghetto was liquidated completely in September 1943, when approximately 2,000 people who were fit to work were deported to the labor camp in Plaszow; the remaining 8,000 residents were killed in Auschwitz. Several hundred Jews remained in Tarnow as workers until early 1944.

A small group of Jews settled in Tarnow after the Second World War. Jews from Tarnow maintain organizations in Israel, the USA, Canada and France. A fragment of the bima (pulpit) of the Old Synagogue has survived in Tarnow, as well as a mikva (ritual bath house) built in the Moresque style, a cemetery with gravestones from the seventeenth century, and the Jewish hospital.

REKLAMA: kosmetyka Opole Salon urody Opole mezoterapia Opole kosmetyki do mezoterapii preparaty do mezoterapii | Chcesz przedłużyć rzęsy, zobacz przedłużanie rzęs opole a może gładka wydepilowana skóra na nogach, depilacja laserem diodowym opole. Cierpisz na brak włosów, przerzedzone włosy na głowie. Skorzystaj ze sposobu na włosy: mikropigmentacja skóry głowy Odwiedźmiejsce, w którym znajdziesz rozwiązanie na problemy skóry głowy i włosów. Klinika Włosa - to miejsce, gdzie twoje włosy odżyją. Odpoczynek na kajakach w okolicach Opola, proponujemy spływy kajakowe, zobacz: spływy kajakowe opolskie | spływy kajakowe Mała Panew | kajaki Mała Panew Wybierz się na spływ kajakowy razem z rodziną.














Adam Mickiewicz Institute, Mokotowska 25, 00-560 Warsaw tel. (48-22) 44 76 100,
fax. (48-22) 44 76 152;