The sports movement was born in Europe in the late nineteenth century, in conjunction with the formation of modern nations and mass political mobilization. Among Polish Jews, interest in sports emerged in the early twentieth century. It was associated with the development of Zionist ideology, which emphasized the need to raise a new, strong and healthy generation of young people able to withstand the difficulties of building a new country in Palestine.

The first Jewish sports clubs were founded at turn of the century in the Austrian and Prussian partitions. The oldest gymnastics society, "Dror" [Hebrew, Nightingale] was founded in Lwow by engineer Zinn, who was its director for thirty-five years. In 1908, A. Kohn established the "Hasmonea" Jewish Sports Club in Lwow. (The name refers to the Hasmonean dynasty that ruled Judea in ancient times. The "Ha-koach" [Hebrew, Strength] Jewish Sports Club was founded in Stanislawow. At the initiative of members of "Hasmonea", an annual holiday, Lag Ba-omer, was established in 1913 to celebrate Jewish sports.
After Poland's independence in 1918, these clubs had branches in many cities. In 1929, the Union of Jewish Gymnastics and Sports Societies in Poland was founded, known as "Makabi" (Hebrew, Hammer, the nickname of Judah Maccabee, founder of the Hasmonean dynasty). Based in Warsaw, it was part of an international sports movement by that same name. In the late 1930's, about 60,000 young people belonged to its clubs in the various cities. Beginning in 1930, the Jewish youth representation from Poland took part in all of the "Makabi games" (the Jewish equivalent of the Spartakiade), such as those in Tel Aviv in 1933. The elite skiing clubs of this union were very active, and participated in all the Makabi winter games held abroad. The left-wing parties also created their own sports organizations. The most popular included the "Morgenshtern" [Yiddish, Morning Star] Physical Education Association, founded by the Bund; the "Gwiazda" (Polish, Star) Physical Education Association, sponsored by Poalei Zion-Left, and the Jewish Workers' Sports Club "Ha-poel" [Hebrew, Worker], associated with Poalei Zion-Right. These three clubs belonged to the Union of Workers' Sports Associations, founded in Poland in 1925, which was under the sway of the Polish Socialist Party. Polish and Jewish sports clubs cooperated with one another, organizing matches or joint competitions.
Many Jewish sportsmen and women and sports activists belonged to national organizations in Poland, such as the soccer players L. Sperling (a member of the Polish soccer team at the 1924 Olympics) and Gintel, associated with "Cracovia"; M. Hamburger, one of the founders of the Warsaw team "Polonia", as well as one of its members; R. Gruenberg, a marksman and activist of the Academic Sports Union in Krakow (the captain of the Polish shooting team at the 1924 Olympics); the boxing coach of Gdansk's "Gryf" team, Singer; and J. Arnasztajn, tennis player and member of "Lublinianka". In chess, considered a sport, famous Jewish players included I. Appel, J. Cukierman, H. Friedman, A. Frydman, S. Kohn, M. Lowcki and D. Przepiorka.

In the late 1930's, some of the Polish clubs introduced an "Aryan clause", such as "Warta" in Poznan and "Wisla" in Krakow.

After the Second World War, in 1946-1950, the following Jewish sports clubs were active: "Gwiazda", "Morgenshtern", "Ha-poel" and "Makabi". Jewish clubs were most numerous in Lower Silesia, where there were fourteen; they also existed in Lodz and Warsaw. They were soon liquidated along with Jewish political parties.

Since 1989, the "Makabi" club is operating in Warsaw, with shooting and chess sections.

REKLAMA: kosmetyka Opole Salon urody Opole mezoterapia Opole kosmetyki do mezoterapii preparaty do mezoterapii | Chcesz przedłużyć rzęsy, zobacz przedłużanie rzęs opole a może gładka wydepilowana skóra na nogach, depilacja laserem diodowym opole. Cierpisz na brak włosów, przerzedzone włosy na głowie. Skorzystaj ze sposobu na włosy: mikropigmentacja skóry głowy Odwiedźmiejsce, w którym znajdziesz rozwiązanie na problemy skóry głowy i włosów. Klinika Włosa - to miejsce, gdzie twoje włosy odżyją. Odpoczynek na kajakach w okolicach Opola, proponujemy spływy kajakowe, zobacz: spływy kajakowe opolskie | spływy kajakowe Mała Panew | kajaki Mała Panew Wybierz się na spływ kajakowy razem z rodziną.














Adam Mickiewicz Institute, Mokotowska 25, 00-560 Warsaw tel. (48-22) 44 76 100,
fax. (48-22) 44 76 152;