INFORMATION SERVICE

TRACES OF THE PAST

Sochaczew


Sochaczew is a district city in the Mazowiecki voivodship, on the western edge of the Łowicz-Błonie Plain. It lies 50 km from Warsaw, on the banks of the Bzura river and its tributaries Utrata and Pisia.

Sights of interest

- neo-classical market stalls (19th century)
- ruins of the castle belonging to the dukes of Mazovia (14th century)
- neo-classical manor house (18th-19th century)
- late Baroque church in Trojanów (18th century)
- ruins of the mullah’s tomb (first half of the 19th century)
- Jewish cemetery (ca. 15th century)
- cemetery of the St. Lawrence (Wawrzyniec) parish, with Orthodox chapel (dates back to before 1914, with several dozen gravestones from the 19th and early 20th centuries and sectors for soldiers who fell in the September 1939 campaign, including the grave of the officer in charge of Sochaczew’s defense – Major Feliks Kozubowski)
- cemetery for Polish soldiers who fell in the battle on the Bzura in 1939 (in Trojanów)

Museum of the Sochaczew Region and the Battlefield of the Battle on the Bzura is open on Tuesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays and Sundays from 10am to 4pm, on Wednesdays and Fridays from 10am to 3pm. Closed Mondays.
Address:
Plac Kościuszki 2, 96-500 Sochaczew
Tel: (0-46) 862-33-09.
http://www.e-sochaczew.pl

Museum of the Narrow-gauge Railway
ul. Towarowa 7
96-500 Sochaczew
Tel: (0-46) 864-93-41; Fax: (0-46) 862-59-75

Historical Outline

Sochaczew is one of the oldest towns in Mazovia. The first mention of it is found in a document issued in 1368. Sochaczew had already been granted its town charter much earlier, however – in the early fourteenth century, or perhaps even as early as the late thirteenth century. In feudal times, Sochaczew played an important role as the capital of one duke’s separate holdings, which influenced its defensive character and significance. Bolesław Krzywousty was in Sochaczew, where he died in 1138. Sochaczew defended itself against the raid by Lithuanian and Rus’ in 1286, and in 1294 duke Kazimierz II died in a battle with the Lithuanians. In 1377, Siemowit III issued the first Mazovia-wide statue, called the ”Sochaczew statute”, and in 1410, Polish armies marched through the town on their way to Grunwald.

The town’s most active period of development came during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, when the burghers’ privileges were expanded to include the freedom to trade at the Lublin markets, in Rus’ and in Gdańsk. In the mid-sixteenth century, Sochaczew was considered to be a medium-sized town. Many of its residents became educated, and Kasper Goski, a doctor of medicine and astrologer of European fame, lectured at the Kraków Academy and was for many years mayor of Poznań. In the seventeenth century, the town was heavily damaged as the result of the Swedish invasion and Rakoczy’s armies, and then the Northern War. It did not regain its former glory, but became a center for small trade and the site of noble regional councils.

During the First World War, Sochaczew witnessed fighting along the German-Russian front on the Bzura and Rawka rivers. Damage was heavy, and as late as 1927 as much as approx. 60% of the buildings had still not yet been rebuilt, although the interwar period was marked by lively industrial and economic growth in and around Sochaczew.

During the September campaign in 1939, the 2nd battalion of the 18th infantry regiment, under the leadership of Major Feliks Kozubowski, gained fame for its defense of Sochaczew. After the defeat of the Polish army, the city became part of the Generalgouvernement, subject to all the restrictions introduced by the Germans. Residents of Sochaczew took part in the resistance, heroically defending their city, for which in 1985 they were awarded a Grunwald Cross 3rd Class. The Red Army entered the town on 17 January 1945, defeating the last German detachments.

Sochaczew’s Jews

Jews lived in the area of Mazovia already in the eleventh century, and are mentioned in the Polish Chronicle by Gallus Anonymus. There, he writes about Judith, wife of Władysław Herman, buying Christians out of slavery from the Jews. No documents or other evidence has survived, however, that would enable us to determine when Jews first settled in Sochaczew.

The oldest record of their presence is a document dating back to 1426-1455 containing a privilege defending the financial interests of the Jews of the Sochaczew area, which had been granted by Władysław I. Evidence for the existence of the Jewish Community as an institution in Sochaczew, on the other hand, dates back to 1507. This document is a list of the Jewish Communities that were taxed in conjunction with the coronation of King Sigismund I the Old. A Jew named Jakub from Sochaczew is mentioned with respect to the creation of the “Jewish districts”, of which there were four in pre-partition Poland. The districts were responsible for collecting taxes for the royal treasury and decided how much the individual Communities should pay.

The sixteenth century brought quite unexpected events to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which was known for its tolerance and provided asylum for dissenters. Rumors spread regarding profanation of the Host by Jews from Sochaczew, along with a Catholic servant. All the accused were caught, probably at the initiative of the papal nuncio, Luigi Lippomano, and, after confessions were obtained under torture, they were burned at the stake in 1556. Jews comprised about 2% of Sochaczew’s population at that time. They were primarily were involved in the leather, wool and tallow trades. They also undoubtedly engaged in money-lending and collection of the royal excise tax.
In the late sixteenth century, the city fell into decline, most probably because of a fire that had destroyed most of the buildings in 1590. The number of Jews living in Sochaczew, however, nevertheless grew more than three-fold, and now made up over 10% of the town’s population. This was for the most part the result of an influx of Jews from Western Europe. Now there was not only a Jewish religious Community and synagogue, but also a hospital. Economic disputes with the locals centered on taxes. Finally, an accusation of ritual murder was made and suspects punished. The residents obtained from the king a regulation banning Jews from settling in Sochaczew – it was however never brought into force. The next fire swept through the town in 1618.

In 1633, the Jews received a privilege from the Polish king Władysław IV permitting them to own buildings, pieces of land and gardens; to use the already existing synagogue and cemetery; to produce and sell alcoholic beverages; to slaughter cattle; and to sell meat at Warsaw’s Old Town. This privilege was de facto a legalization of the status quo.

During the seventeenth century, Sochaczew was not spared damage from the Swedish invasion and numerous wars and epidemics that affected the entire country. The town became depopulated, fell into decline; there was also a return to agrarian patterns. The number of Jewish residents, however, continued to grow steadily thanks to immigrants from all over Europe, and by the early eighteenth century Jews comprised over half of the town’s population. They founded a large yeshiva, which was headed by rebbe Arie Leib Charif, who had come from Opatów. A masonry synagogue was also built – interestingly, it was constructed from bricks originally from the ruins of a Gothic parish church that had burned down in 1793. This was an exceptional case, since usually material from the demolition of Christian structures was later used solely for the construction of other church buildings. It should also be noted that relations with Poles were much better during this period.

The year 1883 was an important date in Sochaczew’s Jewish history: it was then that the Chasidic leader Abraham Bornsztajn (1839-1910) settled in the town. He was author of two treatises on the Talmud and numerous commentaries on the Torah and Talmud. He found many supporters in Sochaczew, where he founded a synagogue and Chasidic yeshiva, and served several years as rabbi. The tsarist authorities governing the Russian partition since 1772 banned him from this function. As a result, he was instead active as a tsaddik and served as director of the yeshiva.
The First World War, while restoring Poland’s independence, also brought many losses and much destruction. The town’s population fell to about 5,000. The interwar period was time of social and economic revival at all levels. In 1924, the Jews held half of the seats on the town council, and Mosze Szwarc was deputy mayor. The town had a Jewish library, amateur theater under the direction of Nachum Grundwag, a wind orchestra and the Jewish Gymnastics and Sports Association. In 1936, the Yiddish-language biweekly Sochatshever Tsaytung began to be published. The following Jewish schools operated in the town: the general Hebrew school “Hatchiya” (“Rebirth”), the general Hebrew school “Yavne”, and a religious school for girls, “Beit Yaakov” (“House of Jakub”).

After the Second World War, Sochaczew quickly found itself in the very center of military operations. From 9-17 September 1939, the town was under fire during the battle on the Bzura. The residents abandoned the bombed and burned buildings, fleeing to Poland’s eastern territories in hope that they would manage to escape behind the front lines. On 17 September 1939, however, the Soviet Union attacked Poland from the east and these hopes were dashed.

The fate of Sochaczew’s Jews was similar to that of all Jews living in the Generalgouvernement. The German occupying authorities introduced a Jewish Council of Elders – the Judenrat, as well as forced labor and bans on the movement of Jews within the district, such as a ban on using the narrow-gauge railway. Nevertheless, Jews who managed to escape from the Polish lands that had been annexed to the Reich kept arriving. In January 1941, a ghetto was created in Sochaczew. On 15 and 16 February, however, those Jews were already sent to the Warsaw ghetto.

Traces

The only surviving trace of the Jewish presence in Sochaczew is the cemetery, which is in the southern part of town, beyond ul. Traugutta. This cemetery was probably established as early as the fifteenth century. Up until the Jewish cemetery in Warsaw’s Praga district was founded, the Sochaczew cemetery was also the resting place for Jews who were residing illegally in Warsaw. The grave of Abraham Bornsztajn is located there, and has an ohel erected above it, in the Chasidic tradition. A similar ohel was constructed above the grave of Eliezer ha-Kohen Lipsker, who was first a rabbi in Pułtusk, and later in Sochaczew and Płock and then once again in Sochaczew. During the German occupation, the kirkut was the site of individual and mass executions of Jews. The Germans profaned the cemetery, using the gravestones as building material for military objects outside town. After the war, the Sochaczew kirkut was officially categorized as “non-existent”. After much arduous work carried out in the name of the Social Committee for Care of Jewish Cemeteries and Historical Buildings, many gravestones were nevertheless located, the oldest of which dates back to the Jewish year 5570 (i.e., 1810).

mapa miejsc

Show traces on the map
Lublin Region
 - Izbica
 - Kazimierz Dolny
 - Kock
 - Krasnik
 - Leczna
 - Lubartow
 - Lublin
 - Parczew
 - Sobibor
 - Szczebrzeszyn
 - Wlodawa
 - Zamosc
Malopolska Region
 - Biecz
 - Bobowa
 - Brzesko
 - Cracow
 - Dabrowa Tarnowska
 - Dukla
 - Jaroslaw
 - Lancut
 - Lelow
 - Lesko
 - Lezajsk
 - Nowy Sacz
 - Oswiecim
 - Przemysl
 - Rymanow
 - Rzeszow
 - Sanok
 - Tarnow
Mazowieckie Region
 - Sochaczew
 - Warsaw Ghetto
 - Warsaw Synagogue
 - Warsaw Sienna - Zlota
Podlasie
 - Bialystok
 - Krynki
 - Sejny
 - Tykocin
REKLAMA: kosmetyka Opole Salon urody Opole mezoterapia Opole kosmetyki do mezoterapii preparaty do mezoterapii | Chcesz przedłużyć rzęsy, zobacz przedłużanie rzęs opole a może gładka wydepilowana skóra na nogach, depilacja laserem diodowym opole. Cierpisz na brak włosów, przerzedzone włosy na głowie. Skorzystaj ze sposobu na włosy: mikropigmentacja skóry głowy Odwiedźmiejsce, w którym znajdziesz rozwiązanie na problemy skóry głowy i włosów. Klinika Włosa - to miejsce, gdzie twoje włosy odżyją. Odpoczynek na kajakach w okolicach Opola, proponujemy spływy kajakowe, zobacz: spływy kajakowe opolskie | spływy kajakowe Mała Panew | kajaki Mała Panew Wybierz się na spływ kajakowy razem z rodziną.

MAIN PAGE

THE LARGEST JEWISH CEMETERY

EVENTS

TRACES OF THE PAST

ORGANIZATIONS

PEOPLE, BIOGRAPHY

JEWISH LIFE

SHOAH

BOOKS

DICTIONARY

 

 

 

Adam Mickiewicz Institute, Mokotowska 25, 00-560 Warsaw tel. (48-22) 44 76 100,
fax. (48-22) 44 76 152;