The origins of the Jewish press are linked to the Haskalah movement in the eighteenth century. In a short period, from 1800 to 1825, the first Jewish periodicals appeared in the Polish lands: Tsir neeman (Hebrew, Loyal Messenger, 1814), Olat shabat (Hebrew, Sabbath Offering, 1817-24), Bikurey ha-itim (Hebrew, Contemporary Review, 1820), Dostrzegacz Nadwislanski - Der Beobachter an der Weichsel (Polish and German, The Vistula Observer) (1823-24), and Izraelita Polski (Polish, The Polish Israelite) (1831). The development of the Jewish press began in earnest during the second half of the nineteenth century, along with the assimilationist movement. Weeklies began to be published in Warsaw, which became the largest publishing center. These included Jutrzenka (Polish The Morning Star) (1861-63), the Hebrew-language Ha-tsfira (Hebrew, The Morning Star, 1862; 1874-1931), the Polish-language Izraelita (The Israelite) (1866-1915) and the Yiddish weekly Varshoyer Yidishe Tsaytung (Warsaw Jewish Newspaper, 1867-68). In Krakow in 1870, another Polish-language periodical called Izraelita (Polish, Israelite) began publication, along with Ojczyzna (Polish, Fatherland) (1881-1892) in Lwow. Polish Jews also read Ha-melits (Hebrew, Speaker, 1860-1904), which was published in Odessa, and Ha-shachar (Hebrew, Dawn, 1868-1886), published in Vienna.

During the interwar period, Jewish culture flourished in Poland in all three languages-Yiddish, Polish and Hebrew. The largest Yiddish dailies were Hajnt (Today, 1908-39) and Der Moment (The Moment, 1910-1939), as well as the popular, sensationalistic and apolitical Unzer Ekspress (Our Express, 1926-39). Zionists published elite periodicals in Polish: Nasz Przeglad (Our Review, Warsaw, 1923-1939), Chwila (The Moment, Lwow, 1919-39) and Opinia (Warsaw, 1933-1936). The Bund's party organ from 1922 was the daily Folkstsaytung (Yiddish, People's Gazette), which was the target of constant harassment from the censorship.
The daily Dos Yidishe Togblat (Yiddish, Jewish Daily Gazette, Warszawa 1929-1939) expressed the views of the Agudas Isroel party. There was also a scholarly press, such as the Polish-language Miesiecznik Zydowski (Jewish Monthly) (Lodz, 1930-1935), and the Yiddish-language JIWO Bleter (YIVO Journal, Wilno 1931-39), Historishe shriftn (Journal of History, Warsaw, 1929-1933); and also specialist and professional publications (including economic and vocational), entertainment and artistic (Chaliastre, Yung Idysh). The Jewish press was even published in small towns. In Baranowicze, for example, several periodicals in Yiddish existed, and the local newspaper in Otwock featured a weekly Yiddish-language supplement. In all, there were over 300 press titles published by various Jewish groups in three languages, which comprised 7% of all press publications in Poland. A Jewish Telegraphic Agency was also active in Poland (1920-1939), which operated internationally as well.

After the Second World War broke out, both Polish and Jewish periodicals ceased publication, though in Soviet-occupied territories some kept publishing until 1940, and a few even continued until the German invasion of the Soviet Union. The Judenrats published two legal Jewish newspapers, with the occupiers' permission: the Polish-language Gazeta Zydowska (Krakow, 1940-1942) and Yiddish-language Geto-Tsaytung (Lodz, 1941). In the Warsaw ghetto, there were 50 titles of the underground press, including 19 in Polish, such as the assimilationist Zagiew (Ember), and 28 in Yiddish, such as the Bundist Biuletin, the Zionist Dror (Hebrew, Generation], communist Morgn Frayhayt (Yiddish, Tomorrow Freedom, 1942).
After the war, in 1944-1949, about 70 press titles were being published in Polish and Yiddish, though most of them were liquidated during the Stalinist period. At that time, only one paper was being published: Folks-Shtyme (Yiddish, Voice of the People], which from 1945 was an organ of the Jewish Faction of the Polish Workers' Party with the Central Committee of Jews in Poland, which in 1950 was subordinated to the Polish United Workers' Party. In 1968, the paper was suspended, and then reopened as a bilingual weekly. At that time, the literary monthly Literarishe Bleter (Yiddish, Literary Journal) ceased publication. In 1995, the Jewish Historical Institute suspended publication of the scholarly quarterly Bleter far Geshichte (Yiddish, Journal of History); since 1950, the Biuletyn Zydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego (Polish, Bulletin of the Jewish Historical Institute) has been published without interruption.

Currently, several Jewish publications are published in Poland: the bilingual Dos Yidishe Vort - Slowo Zydowskie (Yiddish and Polish, The Yiddish Word), and the Polish-language Jidele (Yiddish, Little Jew), Midrasz, Glos Gminy Zydowskiej (Voice of the Jewish Community) (all in Warsaw) and Jestesmy (Polish, We Are), in Gdansk.

REKLAMA: kosmetyka Opole Salon urody Opole mezoterapia Opole kosmetyki do mezoterapii preparaty do mezoterapii | Chcesz przedłużyć rzęsy, zobacz przedłużanie rzęs opole a może gładka wydepilowana skóra na nogach, depilacja laserem diodowym opole. Cierpisz na brak włosów, przerzedzone włosy na głowie. Skorzystaj ze sposobu na włosy: mikropigmentacja skóry głowy Odwiedźmiejsce, w którym znajdziesz rozwiązanie na problemy skóry głowy i włosów. Klinika Włosa - to miejsce, gdzie twoje włosy odżyją. Odpoczynek na kajakach w okolicach Opola, proponujemy spływy kajakowe, zobacz: spływy kajakowe opolskie | spływy kajakowe Mała Panew | kajaki Mała Panew Wybierz się na spływ kajakowy razem z rodziną.














Adam Mickiewicz Institute, Mokotowska 25, 00-560 Warsaw tel. (48-22) 44 76 100,
fax. (48-22) 44 76 152;