A town in the Podkarpackie voivodship that was granted its town charter in 1377, and was the seat of local government during its early history. The oldest mention of Jews in the town dates back to the late fifteenth century, when they were granted a lease to collect Lubaczow customs duties in 1498. Tax records show that in 1538, there were already eighteen Jewish families living in the town, though the lustration of 1565 mentions only three families. Lubaczow Jews were involved in trade and crafts, and also had the right to brew beer. They still held the lease for the collection of municipal fees, as well as the royal taxes from the entire starostwo (local administrative unit) in 1621, 1633 and 1639. They probably also grew fruits and vegetables, and raised cattle and poultry on farms near the town.
In the first half of the seventeenth century, fires and disease caused a great deal of damage in Lubaczow; the situation was compounded by the effects of the Chmielnicki uprising and the Swedish "flood". The lustration of 1662 does not mention any Jewish households, though by the early eighteenth century a relatively large Community did exist there, as evidenced by the amount of taxes paid to the royal treasury. According to the census of 1765, there were 687 Jews obliged to pay taxes who were living in the town and surrounding villages. Beginning in 1772, the town was under the Austrian partition; during the course of the nineteenth century, its significance gradually declined. The town's Jews were mainly engaged in local trade, and Lubaczow's markets and fairs remained popular. The town had no factories. In 1880, the Jewish Community was comprised of about 1,300 people (approximately 30% of the total population).
During the interwar period, the Jews still made up one-third of the town's population. They were involved in small-scale production; they owned over 100 small crafts and industrial enterprises. In 1939, there were 2,300 Jews living in Lubaczow.

At the start of the Second World War, the town was under Soviet occupation. After the Germans took control of the town, in 1942, a ghetto was created. It held 7,000 people, including Jews who had been resettled there from nearby small towns. Most of them were deported in October 1942 and January 1943 to the death camp in Belzec.

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