A mystical and Messianic religious movement, heretical with respect to Judaism, which remained under the influence of Sabbatianism. The movement's leader was Jacob Frank (Jacob Leibowicz), and its basic beliefs were laid out in the "Manifest", published in Lwow before the Kamieniec dispute (1757), in both Polish and Hebrew. Frank's teachings, in the form of parables and aphorisms, were written down in Polish by his followers and published in Brno and Offenbach am Main. (Rozmaite adnotacje, przypadki, czynnosci i anegdoty panskie (Polish, Various Annotations, Cases, Activities and Stories of the Lord, published 1996; and Ksiega slow panskich (Polish, Book of the Words of the Lord), published 1997).

The Frankists rejected Mosaic Law and the authority of the Talmud, emphasizing instead the cabbalistic tome Zohar and later interpretations, particularly Sabbathaistic ones. The adopted the teachings about the sephiroth (sephiroth), personifying them in the Holy Trinity: the Good God, the equivalent of the cabbalistic En Sof [Hebrew, "Unfinished"]; the Big Brother or Ezav, the equivalent of the sefira Tiferet [Hebrew, "Beauty"]; and the Maiden, the equivalent of Shechina [Hebrew, "Presence" (divine)]. They believed that the fruit Eve pulled from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil in Paradise brought death and misfortune to humans. The fruit trapped the Maiden in religious dogmas and institutions, however, hiding her under a false appearance ("portrait"). Frank believed that he was the Messiah, the third after Shabbetai Tzevi and Baruchya Ruso, and identified himself with Jesus-Paraclete, the final Savior. Like other Sabbathaists, he justified his own apostasy by "descending to the bottom of the abyss" (which means voluntarily subjecting oneself to disdain and condemnation) in order to free Shechina.
He did not see Catholicism as the essence of evil, however, as Shabbetai Tzevi regarded Islam: he saw it as the last veil separating us from God. He believed baptism was necessary for attaining eternal life, and thus required it of all his followers, not only selected ones. During his imprisonment in the Czestochowa fortress, he regarded the painting of the Madonna of Czestochowa as being that "portrait" in which Shechina was trapped. He also abandoned his divine pretensions in the belief that his predecessors, Shabbetai Tzevi and Baruchya Ruso, were just like Abraham and Izthak, who were preparing his true mission. Frank's task was to liberate Shechina from the Czestochowa painting of the Virgin Mary and serving Her as a "vessel", before she joins the Big Brother, thus launching the messianic epoch. His later activities indicated that he believed this process had not yet come to an end.

Frank did not, however, link messianic aspirations with the idea of returning to Palestine. He emphasized that "Jerusalem and the Temple will never be rebuilt", and that Poland was to become the promised messianic kingdom ("Poland is the ground where we will build").

REKLAMA: kosmetyka Opole Salon urody Opole mezoterapia Opole kosmetyki do mezoterapii preparaty do mezoterapii | Chcesz przedłużyć rzęsy, zobacz przedłużanie rzęs opole a może gładka wydepilowana skóra na nogach, depilacja laserem diodowym opole. Cierpisz na brak włosów, przerzedzone włosy na głowie. Skorzystaj ze sposobu na włosy: mikropigmentacja skóry głowy Odwiedźmiejsce, w którym znajdziesz rozwiązanie na problemy skóry głowy i włosów. Klinika Włosa - to miejsce, gdzie twoje włosy odżyją. Odpoczynek na kajakach w okolicach Opola, proponujemy spływy kajakowe, zobacz: spływy kajakowe opolskie | spływy kajakowe Mała Panew | kajaki Mała Panew Wybierz się na spływ kajakowy razem z rodziną.














Adam Mickiewicz Institute, Mokotowska 25, 00-560 Warsaw tel. (48-22) 44 76 100,
fax. (48-22) 44 76 152;